By Hannah Packman, NFU Communications Director
For many Black Americans, Juneteenth is a day of celebration. Observed on June 19th, the holiday commemorates the day that the last slaves were freed in the United States in 1865 – two-and-a-half years after President Abraham Lincoln ordered their independence with the Emancipation Proclamation and two months after the Confederate army surrendered.
There is certainly a great deal to celebrate: liberation, centuries of strength and resilience, and significant cultural, artistic, and scientific achievement. But the day is also a reminder of the systemic oppression and relentless suffering the Black community has endured both in slavery and in freedom as well as countless broken promises of justice and equality.
Union General William T. Sherman’s plan to give newly-freed families “forty acres and a mule” was among the first and most significant promises made – and broken – to African Americans. As the Union army gradually took over Confederate territory, there was a question as to what freedom really meant for emancipated slaves. Without property, money, or an education, most did not have a clear or immediate path toward economic independence.
Sherman, it should be noted, was not an abolitionist, and the idea to redistribute land was not his own. Indeed, it was presented to Sherman and Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton by a group of Black ministers in Savannah, Georgia, who told them, “The way we can best take care of ourselves is to have land and turn it and till it by our own labor.”
Just four days later, on January 16, 1865, Sherman issued his Special Field Order 15, which commanded that 400,000 acres of property confiscated from Confederate landowners be redistributed to Black families in 40 acre plots. By June, the land had been allocated to 40,000 of a total of 4 million freed slaves. (Mules were not included in the order, but the Union army did give some away as part of the effort.)
But the order was short-lived. President Andrew Johnson – who had owned slaves and publicly shared his beliefs of white supremacy – overturned the order before the end of the year and returned the land to the slaveowners and traitors who had originally owned it. The long-term financial implications of this reversal is staggering; by some estimates, the value of 40 acres and mule for those 40,000 freed slaves would be worth $640 billion today.
Again landless and in need of income, many former slaves were forced into sharecropping, a form of indentured servitude in which a landowner rents out plots of land to laborers in exchange for a portion of the crops produced. In addition to providing land, landowners often also extended credit to the sharecroppers to purchase materials like seeds and fertilizer from them. Typically, this arrangement was only marginally better than slavery; landowners were known to charge unfairly high interest rates and intentionally underpay sharecroppers, keeping them in an endless cycle of debt and poverty.
Despite substantial hurdles, Black Americans still managed to acquire 15 million acres of land by 1910, much of which was used for agricultural purposes. At the peak in 1920, Black families owned and operated upwards of a million farms – about 14 percent of all farms at the time. The ability to grow crops and raise livestock afforded Black families not just food and financial security but also the opportunity for upward mobility.
This, too, was short-lived. Over the past century, Black farmers lost most of that land, leaving just 45,500 operators with a mere .52 percent of American farmland in 2017. Industrialization, which lured Americans of all races away from rural areas and into cities for better opportunities, is partly to blame. But there were other factors at play.
For one, most early Black landowners did not have legally-binding wills, largely because they did not trust the legal system. Instead, they passed their land down to their next of kin without a clear title as “heirs’ property.” This kind of land ownership makes the owner ineligible for a mortgage, home improvement loans, disaster relief, or most U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. Lacking access to financial resources, many heirs’ property owners either aren’t able to use their land or can’t afford to hold onto it. After several generations, heirs’ property can be inherited by many distant family members, which is a legal and logistical headache. With multiple landowners who may not know each other, the possibility of unpaid taxes and, consequently, foreclosure is relatively high. Additionally, any individual owner can auction off their portion without consulting the other property owners. Knowing this, speculators and developers often coerce family members who have never even seen the property into selling their share for less than market value.
If that weren’t enough, Black farmers have also been subject to systemic discrimination by USDA, other government agencies, and private lending institutions. As a result, they lacked access to loans, crop insurance, technical assistance, market opportunities, and other critical resources made available to other farmers. This put Black farmers at a disadvantage and undermined professional success, forcing many to leave the industry.
The loss of land, whether to heirs’ property, discrimination, or other causes, has deprived the Black community of hundreds of billions of dollars worth of wealth and contributed significantly to modern racial economic inequality. Today, the average net worth of a Black family is only one-tenth that of a white family. A similar gap exists in agriculture: the average Black farmer’s net farm income is just 14 percent that of their white counterpart.
Sherman’s Special Field Order 15 is just one of many promises we have failed to keep to Black citizens since emancipation, and land loss is just one of the injustices they have endured as a result. As a society, we have pledged our commitment to ensuring that Black citizens are treated equitably in our criminal justice, education, health care, housing, and employment systems, yet we have fallen short on every count. Following weeks of protests against policy brutality and other forms of racism, lawmakers, corporations, and individuals have renewed previous promises and made new ones. This Juneteenth, it’s time we finally keep them.
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Keep the promise!
very good article and probably not well known, thank you.
This is good history,and necessary information .
Keep it going please , thank you.
I believe black americans are due what was stolen from their families many many moons ago.
But Stacy in what way can African Americans be paid back? Many laws were created that supports minorities. What are minorities lacking that can’t be fixed with(in) the community.
Thank you for explaining the true history behind today’s sad state of affairs. Now–what will we do about it?
So the program of 40 acres and a mule was based on a program of a conquering general and not of the federal government? On what legal basis was the land seized from the previous owner to be given away? The federal government had five years of occupation which was plenty of time to normalize the deeds to the land. Why did that not happen?
Take a look at the NPR story from a year or so ago: much of this IS STILL GOING ON!!!
This story is about the 2016 eviction of Eddie Wise and his wife Dorothy. An Army veteran, who acquired a farm after retiring. After years of mistreatment by DOA re: farm credit, they lost their farm, in North Carolina. The story recounts abuse before and after the $ multi-billion 1999 settlement of a class action suit, that was partial compensation for decades of farm credit discrimination.
Black American descendants of slavery at still owed Reparations (40 Acres & a Mule). Black Americans are the only race of people in The United States of America that have been enslaved & have never been compensated for being, stolen, sold, tortured, beaten, raped, killed, etc. It is time to give Black Americans the Reparations that are deserved & promised.
I share the sentiment of many others becoming increasingly “sick” and jaded with this country. As the expected ignorant retort of “go back to where you came from” seems plausible to the simple mind, the current state of the country built upon complicated layers after layer of negative history can’t be resolved so simply. There is gradual rage boiling in the collective of African descendants, and the only thing this country’s “leadership” continues to do consistently is offer “trinkets” as pacifiers and bury their heads in the sand if not outright insult by confirming a ideology of superiority. I woefully but understandingly know of descendant groups that have turned their hearts away from the hope of reconciliation or correction of “karmic equity” and have begun training themselves and their progeny accordingly. Marches, riots, and burned structures should be the least of anyone’s concerns.
People have been slaves since the dawn of man. Have the Romans, Vikings, Egyptians and American Indians just to name a few that have had slaves paid any restitution? Not that I’ve heard of.
We African Americans have been “SCREWED” by this country from day one. During slavery, after slavery and the beat goes on. I served during the Viet Nam War. The disrespect and sexual abuse I suffered by the officer at Hickam AFB m, no one would believe changed me as a woman and as a human being and I’m not alone. The military “sucked” for lack of a better word. To this day I still don’t have faith in the country I loved the country I served!
What we as Blacks need to realize is that we were brought here not to be Whites equal when our own country sold us and treated less than there equals. The land Whites took from the Indians was it going to go to someone they bought as slaves be real. What about the Indians and if we Blacks want 40 acres they want back all the acres that was taken from them. Let’s get real in the first place we are a people without a country in the country we came from. If we had the upper hand we would do just what the Whites do my family first. Any groups that comes to American and establish their communities don’t want us in them we can’t speak their language and by the way we have a hard time keeping up with New crap that American keep changing. Forget about the past get an education,Reperation is a thing of the past. God has this
I am a 60-year old white man who dearly loves our American Republic. I believe that we are “a beacon to the rest of the world; that we Americans are ‘special’. Not because of race or association, but because of the ideals that make our country special. I also know that as a nation, we have oft times failed miserably to live up to many of our ‘prime directives’; especially the one that states that all men are created equal. I think that in some way it would behoove our nation to make good on the promises best summed up by General Sherman’s “40-acres & a mule”. Specifically would it be feasible for the Federal Government to acquire foreclosed holdings of land, housing, and business/factory facilities; giving title of these holdings to individuals/groups who can demonstrate a genuine desire and ability to maintain, work, improve said properties?